type 2 diabetes social costs

🔥+ type 2 diabetes social costs 05 Jul 2020 What are the ICD 10 Codes for Type 2 Diabetes? ICD-10-CM codes are a system used by doctors and healthcare professionals to code and classify symptoms, ...

type 2 diabetes social costs African-Americans are almost twice as likely to have type 2 diabetes than non-Hispanic whites.

diabetes and headaches after eating
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
The lead section of this article may need to be rewritten. Use the lead layout guide to ensure the section follows Wikipedia''s pH, leading to DKA. On presentation at hospital, the patient in DKA is typically dehydrated, and breathing rapidly and deeply. Abdominal pain is common and may be severe. The level of consciousness is typically normal until late in the process, when lethargy may progress to coma. Ketoacidosis can easily become severe enough to cause hypotension, shock, and death. Urine analysis will reveal significant levels of ketone bodies (which have exceeded their renal threshold blood levels to appear in the urine, often before other overt symptoms). Prompt, proper treatment usually results in full recovery, though death can result from inadequate or delayed treatment, or from complications (e.g., brain edema). Ketoacidosis is much more common in type 1 diabetes than type 2.

Hyperglycemia hyperosmolar state[edittype 2 diabetes social costs blood test (⭐️ feet) | type 2 diabetes social costs mellitus without complicationhow to type 2 diabetes social costs for ]

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
type 2 diabetes social costs insulin resistance (🔴 with intermittent fasting) | type 2 diabetes social costs odorhow to type 2 diabetes social costs for Find sources: "" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR
(type 2 diabetes social costs immune system (👍 what to eat) | type 2 diabetes social costs rashhow to type 2 diabetes social costs for October 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

type 2 diabetes social costs glucose range (⭐️ recipes) | type 2 diabetes social costs symptoms womenhow to type 2 diabetes social costs for Nonketotic hyperosmolar coma (HNS) is an acute complication sharing many symptoms with DKA, but an entirely different origin and different treatment. A person with very high (usually considered to be above 300 mg/dl (16 mmol/L)) blood glucose levels, water is osmotically drawn out of cells into the blood and the kidneys eventually begin to dump glucose into the urine. This results in loss of water and an increase in blood osmolarity. If fluid is not replaced (by mouth or intravenously), the osmotic effect of high glucose levels, combined with the loss of water, will eventually lead to dehydration. The body''glove and stocking''s type, observed in diabetes. Various mechanisms are proposed, like alterations to the vascular supply of the brain and the interaction of insulin with the brain itself.[8][9]

  • Diabetic cardiomyopathy, damage to the heart muscle, leading to impaired relaxation and filling of the heart with blood (diastolic dysfunction) and eventually heart failure; this condition can occur independent of damage done to the blood vessels over time from high levels of blood glucose.[10]
  • Erectile Dysfunction: Estimates of the prevalence of erectile dysfunction in men with diabetes range from 20 to 85 percent when defined as consistent inability to have an erection firm enough for sexual intercourse. Among men with erectile dysfunction, those with diabetes are likely to have experienced the problem as much as 10 to 15 years earlier than men without diabetes.[11]
  • Periodontal disease (gum disease) is associated with diabetes[12] which may make diabetes more difficult to treat.[13] A number of trials have found improved blood sugar levels in type 2 diabetics who have undergone periodontal treatment.[13]
  • Macrovascular disease the 1 last update 05 Jul 2020 [[edit]

    Macrovascular disease leads to cardiovascular disease, to which accelerated atherosclerosis is a contributor:

    Immune compromise[edit]

    The immune response is impaired in individuals the 1 last update 05 Jul 2020 with diabetes mellitus. Cellular studies have shown that hyperglycemia both reduces the function of immune cells and increases inflammation. The immune response is impaired in individuals with diabetes mellitus. Cellular studies have shown that hyperglycemia both reduces the function of immune cells and increases inflammation.

    • Respiratory infections such as pneumonia and influenza are more common among individuals with diabetes. Lung function is altered by vascular disease and inflammation, which leads to an increase in susceptibility to respiratory agents. Several studies also show diabetes associated with a worse disease course and slower recovery from respiratory infections.[17]
    • Increased risk of wound infections
    • Restrictive lung disease is known to be associated with diabetes. Lung restriction in diabetes could result from chronic low-grade tissue inflammation, microangiopathy, and/or accumulation of advanced glycation end products.[18] In fact the presence restrictive lung defect in association with diabetes has been shown even in presence of obstructive lung diseases like asthma and COPD in diabetic patients.[19]
    • Lipohypertrophy may be caused by insulin therapy. Repeated insulin injections at the same site, or near to, causes an accumulation of extra subcutaneous fat and may present as a large lump under the skin. It may be unsightly, mildly painful, and may change the timing or completeness of insulin action.
    • Depression was associated with diabetes in a 2010 longitudinal study of 4,263 individuals with type 2 diabetes, followed from 2005–2007. They were found to have a statistically significant association with depression and a high risk of micro and macro-vascular events.[20]

    Risk factors[edit]

    type 2 diabetes social costs diet (🔥 januvia) | type 2 diabetes social costs logbookhow to type 2 diabetes social costs for Age[edit]

    Type 2 diabetes in youth brings a much higher prevalence of complications like diabetic kidney disease, retinopathy and peripheral neuropathy than type 1 diabetes, though no significant difference in the odds of arterial stiffness and hypertension.[21]

    type 2 diabetes social costs management (☑ vitamind3) | type 2 diabetes social costs straight talkhow to type 2 diabetes social costs for Poor glucose control[edit]

    type 2 diabetes social costs juvenile (☑ natural remedy) | type 2 diabetes social costs questionshow to type 2 diabetes social costs for A 1988 study over 41 months found that improved glucose control led to initial worsening of complications but was not followed by the expected improvement in complications.[22] In 1993 it was discovered that the serum of diabetics with neuropathy is toxic to nerves, even if its blood sugar content is normal.[23] Research from 1995 also challenged the theory of hyperglycemia as the cause of diabetic complications. The fact that 40% of diabetics who carefully controlled their blood sugar nevertheless developed neuropathy made clear other factors were involved.[24] In a 2013 meta-analysis of 6 randomized controlled trials involving 27,654 patients, tight blood glucose control reduced the risk for some macrovascular and microvascular events but without effect on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality.[25]

    type 2 diabetes social costs mellitus nature (⭐️ natural medications) | type 2 diabetes social costs foods to avoidhow to type 2 diabetes social costs for Autoimmune processes[edit]

    Research from 2007 suggested that in type 1 diabetics, the continuing autoimmune disease which initially destroyed the beta cells of the pancreas may also cause neuropathy,[26] and nephropathy.[27] In 2008 it was even suggested to treat retinopathy with drugs to suppress the abnormal immune response rather than by blood sugar control.[28]

    Genetic factors[edit][edit]

    The known familial clustering of the type and degree of diabetic complications indicates, that genetics play a role in causing complications:

    • the 2001 observation, that non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetics had increased arterial stiffness and neuropathy despite normal blood glucose levels,[29]
    • the 2008 observation, that non-diabetic first-degree relatives of diabetics had elevated enzyme levels associated with diabetic renal disease[30] and nephropathy.[31]
    • the 2007 finding that non-diabetic family members of type 1 diabetics had increased risk for microvascular complications,[32]
    • such as diabetic retinopathy[33]

    Some genes appear to provide protection against diabetic complications, as seen in a subset of long-term diabetes type 1 survivors without complications.[34][35]

    Mechanisms[edit]

    Chronic elevation of blood glucose level leads to damage of blood vessels called angiopathy. The endothelial cells lining the blood vessels take in more glucose than normal, since they do not depend on insulin. They then form more surface glycoproteins than normal, and cause the basement membrane to grow thicker and weaker. The resulting problems are grouped under ""/wiki/Microvascular_disease""mw-redirect""Microvascular disease"" due to damage to small blood vessels and ""/wiki/Macrovascular_disease""Macrovascular disease"" due to damage to the arteries.[citation needed]

    Studies show that DM1 and DM2 cause a change in balancing of metabolites such as carbohydrates, blood coagulation factors,[citation needed] and lipids,[citation needed] and subsequently bring about complications like microvascular and cardiovascular complications.

    The role of metalloproteases and inhibitors in diabetic renal disease is unclear.[36]

    type 2 diabetes social costs early symptoms (👍 tools) | type 2 diabetes social costs life expectancyhow to type 2 diabetes social costs for Numerous researches have found inconsistent results about the role of vitamins in diabetic risk and complications.[37][clarification needed]

    • Thiamine:

    Thiamine acts as an essential cofactor in glucose metabolism,[38] therefore, it may modulate diabetic complications by controlling glycemic status in diabetic patients.[38][39] Additionally, deficiency of thiamine was observed to be associated with dysfunction of β-cells and impaired glucose tolerance.[39] Different studies indicated possible role of thiamin supplementation on the prevention or reversal of early stage diabetic nephropathy,[40][41] as well as significant improvement on lipid profile.[39]

    • Vitamin B12:

    Low serum B12 level is a common finding in diabetics especially those taking Metformin or in advanced age.[42] Vitamin B12 deficiency has been linked to two diabetic complications; atherosclerosis and diabetic neuropathy.[43][44]

    • Folic acid:

    Low plasma concentrations of folic acid were found to be associated with high plasma homocysteine concentrations.[45] In clinical trials, homocysteine concentrations were effectively reduced within 4 to 6 weeks of oral the 1 last update 05 Jul 2020 supplementation of folic acid.[46][47] Moreover, since the activity of endothelial NO synthase enzyme might be potentially elevated by folate,[48] folate supplementation might be capable of restoring the availability of NO in endothelium,[49] therefore, improving endothelial function and reducing the risk for atherosclerosis. van Etten et al., found that a single dose of folic acid might help in reducing the risk of vascular complications and enhancing endothelial function in adults with type 2 diabetes by improving nitric oxide status.[50] Low plasma concentrations of folic acid were found to be associated with high plasma homocysteine concentrations.[45] In clinical trials, homocysteine concentrations were effectively reduced within 4 to 6 weeks of oral supplementation of folic acid.[46][47] Moreover, since the activity of endothelial NO synthase enzyme might be potentially elevated by folate,[48] folate supplementation might be capable of restoring the availability of NO in endothelium,[49] therefore, improving endothelial function and reducing the risk for atherosclerosis. van Etten et al., found that a single dose of folic acid might help in reducing the risk of vascular complications and enhancing endothelial function in adults with type 2 diabetes by improving nitric oxide status.[50]

    • Antioxidants:

    Three vitamins, ascorbic acid; α-tocopherol; and β-carotene, are well recognized for their antioxidant activities in human. Free radical-scavenging ability of antioxidants may reduce the oxidative stress and thus may protect against oxidative damage.[51] Based on observational studies among healthy individuals, antioxidant concentrations were found to be inversely correlated with several biomarkers of insulin resistance or glucose intolerance.[52][53]

    the 1 last update 05 Jul 2020 ManagementManagement[edit]

    Blood pressure controltype 2 diabetes social costs food choices (🔥 characteristics) | type 2 diabetes social costs treatments google searchhow to type 2 diabetes social costs for [edit]

    Modulating and ameliorating diabetic complications may improve the overall quality of life for diabetic patients. For example; when elevated blood pressure was tightly controlled, diabetic related deaths were reduced by 32% compared to those with less controlled blood pressure.[54]

    Vitamins[edit]

    Many observational and clinical studies have been conducted to investigate the role of vitamins on diabetic complications,[43]

    In the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) Epidemiologic Follow-up Study, vitamin supplementations were associated with 24% reduction on the risk of diabetes[clarification needed], observed during 20 years of follow-up.[55]

    Many observational studies and clinical trials have linked several vitamins with the pathological process of diabetes; these vitamins include folate,[46] thiamine,[40] β-carotene, and vitamin E,[52] C,[56] B12,[57] and D.[58]

    • Vitamin D:

    Vitamin D insufficiency is common the 1 last update 05 Jul 2020 in diabetics.[58] Observational studies show that serum vitamin D is inversely associated with biomarkers of diabetes; impaired insulin secretion, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance.[59][60] It has been suggested that vitamin D may induce beneficial effects on diabetic complications by modulating differentiation and growth of pancreatic β-cells and protecting these cells from apoptosis, thus improving β-cells functions and survival.[61] Vitamin D has also been suggested to act on immune system and modulate inflammatory responses by influencing proliferation and differentiation of different immune cells.[62][clarification needed], Moreover, deficiency of vitamin D may contribute to diabetic complications by inducing hyperparathyroidism, since elevated parathyroid hormone levels are associated with reduced β-cells function, impaired insulin sensitivity, and glucose intolerance.[58][59] Finally, vitamin D may reduce the risk of vascular complications by modulating lipid profile.[63] Vitamin D insufficiency is common in diabetics.[58] Observational studies show that serum vitamin D is inversely associated with biomarkers of diabetes; impaired insulin secretion, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance.[59][60] It has been suggested that vitamin D may induce beneficial effects on diabetic complications by modulating differentiation and growth of pancreatic β-cells and protecting these cells from apoptosis, thus improving β-cells functions and survival.[61] Vitamin D has also been suggested to act on immune system and modulate inflammatory responses by influencing proliferation and differentiation of different immune cells.[62][clarification needed], Moreover, deficiency of vitamin D may contribute to diabetic complications by inducing hyperparathyroidism, since elevated parathyroid hormone levels are associated with reduced β-cells function, impaired insulin sensitivity, and glucose intolerance.[58][59] Finally, vitamin D may reduce the risk of vascular complications by modulating lipid profile.[63]

    • Antioxidants may have beneficial effects on diabetic complications by reducing blood pressure, attenuating oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers, improving lipid metabolism, insulin-mediated glucose disposal, and by enhancing endothelial function.[52][64][65]

    Vitamin C has been proposed to induce beneficial effects by two other mechanisms. It may replace glucose in many chemical reactions due to its similarity in structure, may prevent the non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins,[57] and might reduce glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels.[53] Secondly, vitamin C has also been suggested to play a role in lipid regulation as a controlling catabolism of cholesterol to bile acid.[57]

    References for 1 last update 05 Jul 2020 [[edit]

    1. ^ Nathan DM, Cleary PA, Backlund JY, et al. (December 2005). "". The New England Journal of Medicine. 353 (25): 2643–53. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa052187. PMC 2637991. PMID 16371630. for 1 last update 05 Jul 2020
    2. ^ "". Annals for 1 last update 05 Jul 2020 of Internal Medicine. 122 (8): 561–68. April 1995. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-122-8-199504150-00001. PMID 7887548."". Annals of Internal Medicine. 122 (8): 561–68. April 1995. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-122-8-199504150-00001. PMID 7887548.
    3. ^ "". Diabetes.co.uk. Retrieved 22 the 1 last update 05 Jul 2020 November22 November 2012.
    4. ^ Dagogo-Jack, Samuel. "". Diabetes Care. 38 (12): 2193–2199. PMID 26604275. the 1 last update 05 Jul 2020
    5. type 2 diabetes social costs wine (⭐️ early symptoms) | type 2 diabetes social costs diethow to type 2 diabetes social costs for ^ "". Cleveland Clinic (tertiary source). Retrieved type 2 diabetes social costs yoga (👍 with neuropathy) | type 2 diabetes social costs blood testhow to type 2 diabetes social costs for 2019-06-21.
    6. ^ a b c type 2 diabetes social costs definition (⭐️ questionnaire tool) | type 2 diabetes social costs hba1chow to type 2 diabetes social costs for Mailloux, Lionel (2007-02-13). "". UpToDate. Retrieved 2007-12-07.
    7. type 2 diabetes social costs fasting (🔥 metformin) | type 2 diabetes social costs normal range charthow to type 2 diabetes social costs for ^ type 2 diabetes social costs pumps system (👍 what to eat) | type 2 diabetes social costs yo mamahow to type 2 diabetes social costs for Aristides Veves, Rayaz A. Malik (2007). Diabetic Neuropathy: Clinical Management (Clinical Diabetes), Second Edition. New York: Humana Press. pp. 188–98. ISBN 978-1-58829-626-9. the 1 last update 05 Jul 2020
    8. ^ Gispen WH, Biessels GJ (November 2000). "". Trends in Neurosciences. 23 (11): 542–49. doi:10.1016/S0166-2236(00)01656-8. PMID 11074263. the 1 last update 05 Jul 2020
    9. type 2 diabetes social costs foods to avoid (🔴 nice) | type 2 diabetes social costs case studyhow to type 2 diabetes social costs for ^ "". CNN. 2011-09-19."". CNN. 2011-09-19.
    10. ^ type 2 diabetes social costs statistics uk (👍 what to eat) | type 2 diabetes social costs natural remedyhow to type 2 diabetes social costs for Kobayashi S, Liang Q (May 2014). "". Biochim Biophys Acta. S0925-4439 (14): 148–43. doi:10.1016/j.bbadis.2014.05.020. PMID 24882754.
    11. ^ Dysfunction, Erectyle. "". doctor.ac. doctor.ac. Retrieved 2 July 2016.[permanent dead link]Dysfunction, Erectyle. "". doctor.ac. doctor.ac. Retrieved 2 July 2016.[permanent dead link]
    12. ^ Mealey, BL (October 2006). "". Journal of the American Dental Association. 137 Suppl: 26S–31S. doi:10.14219/jada.archive.2006.0404. PMID 17012733.
    13. ^ a b Lakschevitz, F; Aboodi, G; Tenenbaum, H; Glogauer, M (Nov 1, 2011). "". Current Diabetes Reviews. 7 (6): 433–39. doi:10.2174/157339911797579205. PMID 22091748.
    14. ^ a b Scott, G (March–April 2013). "". Osteopathic Family Physician. 5 (2): 73–78. doi:10.1016/j.osfp.2012.08.002.type 2 diabetes social costs vision (👍 bacon) | type 2 diabetes social costs lawsuithow to type 2 diabetes social costs for
    15. ^ Weiss JS, Sumpio BE (February 2006). "". European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery. 31 (2): 143–50. doi:10.1016/j.ejvs.2005.08.015. PMID 16203161.
    16. ^ a b Codner, E.; Merino, P. M.; Tena-Sempere, M. (2012). "". Human Reproduction Update. 18 (5): 568–85. doi:10.1093/humupd/dms024. PMID 22709979.
    17. ^ type 2 diabetes social costs questionnaire (🔴 blood sugar) | type 2 diabetes social costs australiahow to type 2 diabetes social costs for Ahmed MS, Reid E, Khardori N (June 24, 2008). "". Journal of Respiratory Diseases.
    18. ^ Hsia, Connie C.W.; Raskin, Philip (2008). "". Diabetes Care. 31 (4): 828–829. doi:10.2337/dc08-0103. PMID 18375433. Retrieved 13 February 2013. the 1 the 1 last update 05 Jul 2020 last update 05 Jul 2020 Hsia, Connie C.W.; Raskin, Philip (2008). "". Diabetes Care. 31 (4): 828–829. doi:10.2337/dc08-0103. PMID 18375433. Retrieved 13 February 2013. the 1 last update 05 Jul 2020
    19. ^ type 2 diabetes social costs and alcohol (🔥 home remedies) | type 2 diabetes social costs new zealand statisticshow to type 2 diabetes social costs for Mishra, G.P.; T.M. Dhamgaye; B.O. Tayade; et al. (December 2012). "" (PDF). Applied Cardiopulmonary Pathophysiology. 16 (4–2012): 299–308. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
    20. ^^ Lin, Elizabeth H. B.; Rutter, Carolyn M.; Katon, Wayne; Heckbert, Susan R.; Ciechanowski, Paul; Oliver, Malia M.; Ludman, Evette J.; Young, Bessie A.; Williams, Lisa H. (2010-02-01). "". Diabetes Care. 33 (2): 264–69. doi:10.2337/dc09-1068. ISSN 0149-5992. PMC type 2 diabetes social costs new zealand (⭐️ sugar) | type 2 diabetes social costs epidemiologyhow to type 2 diabetes social costs for 2809260. PMID 19933989.
    21. ^ Dabelea D, Stafford JM, Mayer-Davis EJ, et al. (2017). "". JAMA. 317 (8): 825–35. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.0686. PMC 5483855. PMID 28245334.
    22. ^ Brinchmann-Hansen O, Dahl-Jørgensen K, Hanssen KF, Sandvik L (September 1988). "". Arch. Ophthalmol. 106 (9): 1242–46. doi:10.1001/archopht.1988.01060140402041. PMID 3046587.
    23. ^^ Pittenger GL, Liu D, Vinik AI (December 1993). "". Diabet. Med. 10 (10): 925–32. doi:10.1111/j.1464-5491.1993.tb00008.x. PMID 8306588.
    24. ^ M. Centofani, "" Science News, vol. 149, no. 26/27, Dec. 23–30, p. 421 (1995)
    25. ^ Buehler, AM; Cavalcanti, AB; Berwanger, O; et al. (Jun 2013). "". Cardiovascular Therapeutics. 31 (3): 147–60. doi:10.1111/j.1755-5922.2011.00308.x. PMID 22212499.
    26. ^ Granberg V, Ejskjaer N, Peakman M, Sundkvist G (August 2005). "". Diabetes Care. 28 (8): 1959–64. doi:10.2337/diacare.28.8.1959. PMID 16043739.
    27. ^ Ichinose K, Kawasaki E, Eguchi K (2007). "". Am. J. Nephrol. 27 (6): 554–64. doi:10.1159/000107758. PMID 17823503.
    28. ^ Adams DD (June 2008). "". Clin Ophthalmol. 2 (2): 295–98. doi:10.2147/OPTH.S2629. PMC 2693966. PMID 19668719.
    29. type 2 diabetes social costs treatment nhs (🔴 ketone) | type 2 diabetes social costs killerhow to type 2 diabetes social costs for ^ Foss CH, Vestbo E, Frøland A, Gjessing HJ, Mogensen CE, Damsgaard EM (March 2001). "". Diabetes. 50 (3): 630–36. doi:10.2337/diabetes.50.3.630. PMID 11246884.
    30. ^ Ban CR, Twigg SM (2008). "". Vasc Health Risk Manag. 4 (3): 575–96. doi:10.2147/VHRM.S1991. PMC 2515418. PMID 18827908. for 1 last update 05 Jul 2020
    31. ^ Tarnow L, Groop PH, Hadjadj S, et al. (January 2008). "". Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 23 (1): 161–68. doi:10.1093/ndt/gfm501. PMID 17704113.
    32. ^ Monti MC, Lonsdale JT, Montomoli C, et al. (December 2007). "". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 92 (12): 4650–55. doi:10.1210/jc.2007-1185. PMID 17878250.
    33. ^ type 2 diabetes social costs junk food (☑ weight loss injections) | type 2 diabetes social costs need insulinhow to type 2 diabetes social costs for Liew G, Klein R, Wong TY (2009). "". Int Ophthalmol Clin. 49 (2): 35–52. doi:10.1097/IIO.0b013e31819fd5d7. PMC 2746819. PMID 19349785.type 2 diabetes social costs treatment side effect (⭐️ lecture) | type 2 diabetes social costs chartshow to type 2 diabetes social costs for
    34. type 2 diabetes social costs hba1c (⭐️ urine test) | type 2 diabetes social costs namehow to type 2 diabetes social costs for ^ Sun J; et al. (2011). "". Diabetes Care. 34 (4): 968–974. doi:10.2337/dc10-1675. PMC 3064059. PMID 21447665.Sun J; et al. (2011). "". Diabetes Care. 34 (4): 968–974. doi:10.2337/dc10-1675. PMC 3064059. PMID 21447665.
    35. ^ Porta M; et al. (2016). "". Diabetes. 65 (4): 1022–1030. doi:10.2337/db15-1247. PMC type 2 diabetes social costs ribbon (☑ insulin) | type 2 diabetes social costs onsethow to type 2 diabetes social costs for 4806664. PMID 26718501.
    36. ^ P. Zaoui, et al, (2000) "" Diabetes for 1 last update 05 Jul 2020 and Metabolism, vol. 26 (Supplement 4), p. 25 P. Zaoui, et al, (2000) "" Diabetes and Metabolism, vol. 26 (Supplement 4), p. 25
    37. ^ Bonnefont-Rousselot D (2004). "". Treatments in Endocrinology. 3 (1): 41–52. doi:10.2165/00024677-200403010-00005. PMID 15743112.
    38. ^ a b Arora S, Lidor A, Abularrage CJ, Weiswasser JM, Nylen E, Kellicut D, et al. (2006). "". Annals of Vascular Surgery. 20 (5): 653–58. doi:10.1007/s10016-006-9055-6.
    39. ^ a b c Thornalley PJ (2005). "". Current Diabetes Reviews. 1 (3): 287–98. doi:10.2174/157339905774574383. PMID 18220605. for 1 last update 05 Jul 2020
    40. ^ a b Karachalias N.; Babaei-Jadidi R.; Rabbani N.; Thornalley P. J. (2010). "". Diabetologia. 53 (7): 1506–16. doi:10.1007/s00125-010-1722-z. PMID 20369223.
    41. type 2 diabetes social costs therapeutic procedures (⭐️ and insulin) | type 2 diabetes social costs carbohydratehow to type 2 diabetes social costs for ^^ Rabbani, N; Thornalley, PJ (July 2011). "". Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism. 13 (7): 577–83. doi:10.1111/j.1463-1326.2011.01384.x. PMID 21342411.
    42. ^ Pflipsen M, Oh R, Saguil for 1 last update 05 Jul 2020 A, Seehusen D, Seaquist D, Topolski R (2009). "". The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine. 22 (5): 528–34. doi:10.3122/jabfm.2009.05.090044. PMID 19734399.Pflipsen M, Oh R, Saguil A, Seehusen D, Seaquist D, Topolski R (2009). "". The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine. 22 (5): 528–34. doi:10.3122/jabfm.2009.05.090044. PMID 19734399.
    43. ^ a b Al-Maskari MY, Waly MI, Ali A, Al-Shuaibi YS, Ouhtit A (2012). "". Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.). 28 (7–8): e23–26. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2012.01.005. for 1 last update 05 Jul 2020
    44. ^ Selhub, J., Jacques, P., Dallal, G., Choumenkovitch, S., & Rogers, G. (2008). The use of blood concentrations of vitamins and their respective functional indicators to define folate and vitamin B12 status. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 29(s), 67–73
    45. ^ Mangoni AA, Sherwood RA, Asonganyi B, Swift CG, Thomas S, Jackson SHD (2005). "". American Journal of Hypertension. 18 (2): 220–26. doi:10.1016/j.amjhyper.2004.08.036. PMID 15752950.
    46. ^ a b Mangoni AA, Sherwood RA, Swift CG, Jackson SH (2002). "". Journal of Internal Medicine. 252 (6): 497–503. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2796.2002.01059.x. PMID 12472909.
    47. ^ Mangoni AA, Jackson SHD (2002). "". American Journal of Medicine. 112 (7): 556–65. doi:10.1016/s0002-9343(02)01021-5.Mangoni AA, Jackson SHD (2002). "". American Journal of Medicine. 112 (7): 556–65. doi:10.1016/s0002-9343(02)01021-5.
    48. ^ Title LM, Ur E, Giddens K, McQueen the 1 last update 05 Jul 2020 MJ, Nassar BA (2006). "". Vascular Medicine. 11 (2): 101–09. doi:10.1191/1358863x06vm664oa. PMID 16886840.Title LM, Ur E, Giddens K, McQueen MJ, Nassar BA (2006). "". Vascular Medicine. 11 (2): 101–09. doi:10.1191/1358863x06vm664oa. PMID 16886840.
    49. ^ Montezano, A. C., & Touyz, R. M. (2012). Reactive oxygen species and endothelial function - role of nitric oxide synthase uncoupling and nox family nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, 110(1), 87–94
    50. ^ Van Etten R. W.; de Koning E. J. P.; Verhaar M. C.; et al. (2002). "". Diabetologia. 45 (7): 1004–10. doi:10.1007/s00125-002-0862-1. PMID 12136399.Van Etten R. W.; de Koning E. J. P.; Verhaar M. C.; et al. (2002). "". Diabetologia. 45 (7): 1004–10. doi:10.1007/s00125-002-0862-1. PMID 12136399.
    51. ^ Rahimi R, Nikfar S, Larijani B, Abdollahi M (2005). "". Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 59 (7): 365–73. doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2005.07.002.
    52. ^ a b c Song Y.; Cook N.; Albert C.; Denburgh M. V.; Manson J. E. (2009). "". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 90 (2): 429–37. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27491. PMC 2848361. PMID 19491386.
    53. ^ a b Sargeant L. A.; Wareham N. J.; Bingham S.; et al. (2000). "". Diabetes Care. 23 (6): 726–32. doi:10.2337/diacare.23.6.726.
    54. type 2 diabetes social costs management (🔴 quizlet) | type 2 diabetes social costs wikihow to type 2 diabetes social costs for ^ Deshpande A., Hayes M., Schootman M. (2008). "". Physical Therapy. 88 (11): 1254–64. doi:10.2522/ptj.20080020. PMC 3870323. PMID 18801858.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
    55. ^ Kataja-Tuomola M.; Sundell J.; Männistö S.; Virtanen M.; Kontto J.; Albanes D.; et al. (2008). "". Diabetologia. 51 (1): 47–53. doi:10.1007/s00125-007-0864-0. PMID 17994292.
    56. ^ Ceriello A, Novials A, Ortega E, Canivell S, Pujadas G, La Sala L, et al. (2013). "". Cardiovascular Diabetology. 12: 97. doi:10.1186/1475-2840-12-97. PMC 3699412. PMID 23806096. the 1 last update 05 Jul 2020
    57. ^ a b c Afkhami-Ardekani M, Shojaoddiny-Ardekani A (2007). "". Indian Journal of Medical Research. 126 (5): 471–74.
    58. ^ a b c Sugden J. A., Davies J. I., Witham for 1 last update 05 Jul 2020 M. D., Morris A. D., Struthers A. D. (2008). "". Diabetic Medicine. 25 (3): 320–325. doi:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2007.02360.x.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)Sugden J. A., Davies J. I., Witham M. D., Morris A. D., Struthers A. D. (2008). "". Diabetic Medicine. 25 (3): 320–325. doi:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2007.02360.x.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
    59. ^ a b Takiishi T., Gysemans C., Bouillon R., Mathieu C. (2010). "". Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America. 39 (2): 419–46. doi:10.1016/j.ecl.2010.02.013. PMID 20511061.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
    60. ^ Talaei A., Mohamadi M., Adgi Z. (2013). "". Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome. 5 (8). doi:10.1186/1758-5996-5-8. PMC type 2 diabetes social costs variation (☑ carb count) | type 2 diabetes social costs jewelryhow to type 2 diabetes social costs for 3586569. PMID 23443033.type 2 diabetes social costs hereditary (🔴 test kit) | type 2 diabetes social costs joint painhow to type 2 diabetes social costs for CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
    61. ^ Takiishi T., Gysemans C., Bouillon R., Mathieu C. (2010). "". Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America. 39 (2): 419–46. doi:10.1016/j.ecl.2010.02.013. PMID 20511061.CS1 for 1 last update 05 Jul 2020 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)Takiishi T., Gysemans C., Bouillon R., Mathieu C. (2010). "". Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America. 39 (2): 419–46. doi:10.1016/j.ecl.2010.02.013. PMID 20511061.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
    62. ^ Muthian G, Raikwar HP, Rajasingh J, Bright JJ (2006). "". Journal of Neuroscience Research. 83 (7): 1299–309. doi:10.1002/jnr.20826.
    63. ^ Gannage-Yared MH, Azoury for 1 last update 05 Jul 2020 M, Mansour I, Baddoura R, Halaby G, Naaman R (2003). "". Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. 26 (8): 748–53. doi:10.1007/bf03347358.Gannage-Yared MH, Azoury M, Mansour I, Baddoura R, Halaby G, Naaman R (2003). "". Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. 26 (8): 748–53. doi:10.1007/bf03347358.
    64. ^ Mullan B. A.; Young I. S.; Fee H.; McCance D. R. (2002). "". Hypertension. 40 (6): 804–09. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.538.5875. doi:10.1161/01.hyp.0000039961.13718.00.
    65. ^ type 2 diabetes social costs onset (⭐️ jardiance) | type 2 diabetes social costs mellitushow to type 2 diabetes social costs for Regensteiner J. G.; Popylisen S.; Bauer T. A.; Lindenfeld J.; Gill E.; Smith S.; et al. (2003). "". Vascular Medicine. 8 (3): 169–75. doi:10.1191/1358863x03vm489oa.

    External links[edit]

    Classification
    Types
    Blood tests
    Management
    Complications
    Other
    Retrieved from ""ltr""https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Complications_of_diabetes&oldid=955785280""